学苑新报、学苑教育官方网站
  您好,尚学苑欢迎您!订报热线:0755-86623145
2017高考英语指导:弄清定状语 读懂长短句

作者:未知     来源:网络    2017-05-04

 
  句子是构成篇章的基本单位。要读懂一篇文章,首先要理解每个句子。同样,要写出一篇文章,首先要写好每个句子。一个句子最短的基本成分是“主+谓”,最长的基本成分是“主+谓+宾+补”。基本成分的修饰语为附属成分:定语―修饰限制名词或代词的单词、短语或从句;状语―修饰限制谓语、句子或句子里一部分的单词、短语或从句。
 
  一、附属成分作定语
 
  英语中的定语可分为限制性定语和非限制性定语。用来作定语的有:名词、数词、形容词、代词、副词、介词短语、非谓语动词和定语从句等等。
 
  1. 限制性定语:单个词放在被修饰的词前面,短语和从句放在被修饰的词后面。
 
  (1)名词、形容词、副词、数词、代词或介词短语等;
 
  ①She worked in a shoe factory.
 
  ②Please don’t be so cruel to a ten-year-old child like that.
 
  副词作定语一般放在被修饰的词后面, 以表示位置的居多。如:
 
  ③Do you know the man over there?
 
  ④Poor Jack tottered toward a hospital nearby.
 
  present, absent, a-开头的形容词和形容词短语作定语放在被修饰的词之后。可以理解成which /that / who +is(was) / are(were)引导的定语从句的省略。如:
 
  ⑤All the people present at the party were his supporters.
 
  ⑥I think he is the oldest man alive in the small town.
 
  (1)非谓语动词(短语),一般可转换成限制性定语从句。
 
  ①Let’s find a restaurant to have lunch in.
 
  句中黑体部分可改为:where/in which we can have lunch
 
  ②The repairs cost a lot, but it’s money well spent.
 
  句中黑体部分可改为:that/which was well spent
 
  【注】 -ing形式作定语时只能用一般式, 表示与谓语动词动作同时发生,不可使用其完成式。如:
 
  ③Suddenly, a tall man driving a golden carriage seized the girl and took her away, disappearing into the woods.
 
  句中黑体部分可改为:who/that was driving a golden carriage
 
  ④The flowers smelling sweet in the botanic garden attract the visitors to the beauty of nature.
 
  句中黑体部分可改为:that/which smell sweet in the botanic garden
 
  (3)限制性定语从句。
 
  ①We are living in an age when/in which many things are done on computer.
 
  ②Many people who had seen the film were afraid to go to the forest when they remembered the scenes in which people were eaten by the tiger.
 
  2. 非限制性定语,一般放在后面,对中心词起修饰作用,而不对其进行限制。省略之后对句子意思的表达影响不大。
 
  (1)名词、数词、形容词等短语,可理解为一个省略的非限制性定语从句。
 
  ①David, our English teacher, appreciated your idea much.
 
  句中黑体部分可改为:who was our English teacher
 
  ②He was sent to France, a European country.
 
  句中黑体部分可改为:which was a European country
 
  (2)非谓语动词(短语),一般可转换成非限制性定语从句。如:
 
  The manager, making it clear to us that he didn’t agree with us, left the meeting room.
 
  句中黑体部分可改为: who made it clear to us that he didn’t agree with us
 
  (3)非限制性定语从句,常可转换成分词或并列句。如:
 
  ①John said he’d been working in the office for an hour, which was true.
 
  句中黑体部分可改为:and it was true
 
  ②The famous basketball star, who tried to make a comeback, attracted a lot of attention.
 
  句中黑体部分可改为:trying to make a comeback
 
  【注】 as引导的非限制性定语从句常可提前,但and引导的并列句应在前一个分句后。如:
 
  As is often the case, we have worked out the production plan.
 
  可改为:We have worked out the production plan and it is often the case.
 
  二、附属成分作状语
 
  状语是用来修饰限制谓语,整个句子或句子里的一部分。常用来作状语的有:形容词、副词、介词短语、非谓语动词和状语从句等等。状语和句子间的逻辑关系各有不同,可以分成不同的状语:原因状语、时间状语、条件状语、结果状语、让步状语、伴随状语、目的状语、结果状语等等。
 
  (1)形容词、副词和介词短语等作状语。如:
 
  ①Thirsty, he went into a tea house. (thirsty 是形容词,可看成是分词短语being thirsty的省略,对主语he进行补充说明)
 
  ②She sat quietly in her seat.(quietly是副词,修饰动作sat)
 
  【注】 形容词通常不作状语,偶尔有形容词作状语,通常表示原因、方式、伴随、时间、让步等。如:
 
  ③He came in, full of fear. (表伴随,相当于When he came in, he was full of fear.)
 
  ④Ripe, the fruit tastes better. (表时间,相当于When the fruit is ripe.)
 
  ⑤Right or wrong, I will stand on your side. (表让步,相当于Whether you are right or wrong.)
 
  (2)非谓语动词(短语),可转换成状语从句。如:
 
  ①Lost in the mountains for a week, the two students were finally saved by the local police. =句中黑体部分可补充为:After they were lost in the mountains for a week.
 
  ②It was unbelievable that the fans waited outside the gym for three hours just to have a look at the sports stars.
 
  句中黑体部分可改为:in order that they could have a look at the sports stars
 
  (3)状语从句。
 
  ①The house could fall down soon if no one does some quick repair work. (表条件)
 
  ②Roses need special care so that they can live through winter. (表目的)
 
  ③Since /as the weather is so bad, we have to delay our journey.(表原因)
 
  ④He speaks English as though he were an Englishman. (表方式)
 
  熟练掌握句子的附属成分,对准确理解句子意思大有裨益,对长句的理解很有好处。在阅读中,有利于将长句读短,去掉枝蔓,抓住核心,提高篇章的理解能力。了解句子的附属成分也有助于写作。正确使用好句子附属成分能将意思表达更加准确,叙述更加生动,丰富表达方式,增强文章感染力。
 
  真题精练
 
  1. (2006年上海)I made so many changes in my composition that only I could read it. To _____ else, it was hard to make out.
 
  A. none B. everyone C. someone D. anyone
 
  2. (2006年北京)There have been several new events _____ to the program for the 2008 Olympic Games.
 
  A. add  B. to add C. adding D. added
 
  3. (2006年广东)No matter how frequently _____, the works of Beethoven still attract people all over the world.
 
  A. performing B. performed
 
  C. to be performed D. being performed
 
  4. (2006年陕西)He hurried to the booking office only __ that all the tickets had been sold out.
 
  A. to tell B. to be told C. telling D. told
 
  5. (2006年天津)The Beatle, ___ many of you are old enough to remember, came from Liverpool.
 
  A. what B. that C. how D. as
 
  6. (2006年江西)The hurricane damaged many houses and business buildings; _____, it caused 20 deaths.
 
  A. or else B. therefore
 
  C. after all D. besides
 
  7. (2006年湖南)I had just stepped out the bathroom and was busily drying myself with a towel _____ I heard the steps.
 
  A. while B. when C. since D. after
 
  8. (2006年浙江)I was given three books on cooking, the first _____ I really enjoyed.
 
  A. of that B. of which C. that D. which
 
  9. (2006年上海)―It’s a top secret.
 
  ―Yes, I see. I will keep the secret _____ you and me.
 
  A. with B. around C. among D. between
 
  10. (2006年江苏)My most famous relative of all, _____ who really left his mark on America, was Red Sussel, my great-grand father.
 
  A. one B. the one C. he D. someone
 
  (Keys: 1. D 2. D 3. B 4. B 5. D 6. D 7. B 8. B 9. D 10. C)
热点关注
盘古网络

版权所有深圳易升学苑  地址:广东省深圳市罗湖区宝安路99号 

电话:0755-86623145 邮箱:yishengxy@yishengxy.com

ICP备案号:粤ICP备08022543号-1 主体:深圳易升学苑 技术支持:盘古网络[定制网站]